Glossary of Term
Additional Needs – The main term used when a child requires something different than is provided for the other children in the class.
Annual Review – A review of a Statement of Special Educational Needs which an education authority must undertake at least every 12 months. Parents/Carers, the school and any other professionals working with the child attend this meeting.
Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) – A specific learning difficulty typically presenting as exceptionally low concentration span, poor working memory, limited organisational skills with extreme impulsivity.
Autistic Spectrum Disorder (ASD) – A condition presenting itself in a variety of forms typically including specific learning difficulties centred around limited empathy, fixated / literal thinking, limited ability to interpret language, limited ability to engage in a variety of social situations / experiences etc. Pupils with autistic spectrum disorder cover the full range of ability and the severity of their difficulties varies widely.
Down’s Syndrome – Down’s syndrome is a genetic condition caused by the presence of an extra chromosome 21 in the body’s cells.
Dyscalculia – A specific learning difficulty typically presenting itself in one or more of the main areas of Maths. For example, difficulties using symbols and acquiring arithmetical skills particularly those requiring use of working memory, and spatial understanding.
Dyslexia – A specific learning difficulty typically presenting itself in one or more of the main areas of literacy. Students will have difficulties with working memory and often organisational skills. Students of all ability levels may have dyslexia.
Dyspraxia – A specific learning difficulty based around the brain’s transmission of signals that control gross and fine motor skills. Dyspraxia typically affects planning of movements and co-ordination. It can also impact on language development.
Education Health Care Plan – These plans are replacing Statements of Special Educational Needs over the next few years and layout the support an individual child needs to receive.
Educational Psychologist – A professional who helps in assessing children’s Special Educational Needs in giving advice to schools and parents.
Emotional Literacy Support Assistant (ELSA) – TAs trained to provide emotional and social skills support to children.
English as Additional Language (EAL) – The term most widely used in schools for teaching English to pupils for whom English is not a first language.
Hearing Impairment – Difficulties based around fully or partially reduced functioning in one or both ear’s ability to detect and/or process sounds.
Inclusion – The practice of educating children with Special Educational Needs in mainstream schools where it’s possible and beneficial.
Individual Education Plan (IEP) – A document to plan and record actions being undertaken to meet the additional needs of a child. The targets should be short term and achievable. IEPs are reviewed at least three times a year.
Local Authority (LA) – The organisation responsible for providing or coordinating public services.
Special Educational Needs (SEN) – A learning difficulty that makes it harder for a child to learn or access education than it is for most children of the same age.
SEN Support – Additional support provided for children with Special Educational Needs. This term has replaced School Action and School Action Plus.
SEND – Special Education Needs and Disabilities.
SEND Code of Practice – A document from the government which provides practical advice to those carrying out their statutory duties to identify, assess and make provision for children’s Special Educational Needs and Disabilities.
Speech and Language Therapy (SALT) – Support planned for by a Speech and Language Therapist for children who have a range of specific learning difficulties related to all aspects of communication in children and young people. These can include difficulties with fluency, forming sounds and words, formulating sentences and understanding what others say.
Statement of Special Educational Needs – A legal document that sets out a child’s needs and the specific help he or she must receive.
Visual Impairment – Difficulties based around fully or partially reduced functioning in one or both eyes’ ability to detect and/or process images.